What is a Urinalysis Test
A urinalysis is a test of your urine. A urinalysis is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes.
A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness. For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney disease.
Results: For a urinalysis, your urine sample is evaluated in three ways: visual exam, dipstick test and microscopic exam.
Visual exam: A lab technician examines the urine's appearance. Urine is typically clear. Cloudiness or an unusual odor may indicate a problem, such as an infection. Blood in the urine may make it look red or brown.
Dipstick Test: A dipstick — a thin, plastic stick with strips of chemicals on it — is placed in the urine to detect abnormalities. The chemical strips change color if certain substances are present or if their levels are above normal.
A dipstick test checks for: Acidity (pH). The pH level indicates the amount of acid in urine. Abnormal pH levels may indicate a kidney or urinary tract disorder.
Concentration. A measure of concentration, or specific gravity, shows how concentrated particles are in your urine. A higher than normal concentration often is a result of not drinking enough fluids.
Protein. Low levels of protein in urine are normal. Small increases in protein in urine usually aren't a cause for concern, but larger amounts may indicate a kidney problem.
Sugar. Normally the amount of sugar (glucose) in urine is too low to be detected. Any detection of sugar on this test usually calls for follow-up testing for diabetes. Ketones. As with sugar, any amount of ketones detected in your urine could be a sign of diabetes and requires follow-up testing.
Bilirubin. Bilirubin is a product of red blood cell breakdown. Normally, bilirubin is carried in the blood and passes into your liver, where it's removed and becomes part of bile. Bilirubin in your urine may indicate liver damage or disease.
Evidence of infection. If either nitrites or leukocyte esterase — a product of white blood cells — is detected in your urine, it may be a sign of a urinary tract infection.
Blood. Blood in your urine requires additional testing — it may be a sign of kidney damage, infection, kidney or bladder stones, kidney or bladder cancer, or blood disorders. A urinalysis alone usually doesn't provide a definite diagnosis. Depending on the reason your doctor recommended this test, abnormal results may or may not require follow-up.
Your doctor may evaluate the urinalysis results along with those of other tests — or order additional tests — to determine next steps. For example, if you are otherwise healthy and have no signs or symptoms of illness, results slightly above normal on a urinalysis may not be a cause for concern and follow-up may not be needed. However, if you've been diagnosed with a kidney or urinary tract disease, elevated levels may indicate a need to change your treatment plan. For specifics about what your urinalysis results mean, talk with your doctor.